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Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Simvastatin on Human Dental Pulp Cells

Statins, specifically hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase inhibitors (HMG-Co-A), are well-recognized for their capacity to reduce plasma cholesterol levels. Nevertheless, a comprehensive investigation into the biocompatibility of Simvastatin with human dental pulp cells has been somewhat lacking. The principal objective of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of the effects of varying concentrations of Simvastatin on critical aspects such as cell attachment, proliferation, toxicity, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis in normal human dental pulp cells. To execute this, dental pulp cells derived from healthy human pulp tissue were subjected to Simvastatin treatments at concentrations ranging from 1 µmol/L to 100 µmol/L, with a control group at 0 µmol/L. The evaluation encompassed an assessment of cell attachment at a 16-hour interval. Subsequent investigations spanned proliferation rates and cytotoxicity assessments conducted at 7, 14, and 21 days. Additional analyses included cell cycle progression and apoptotic events at 1- and 3 days post-treatment. The statistical analysis relied on ANOVA, with a significance threshold set at p-values of ≤0.05. The results yielded several noteworthy findings. Notably, a concentration of 25 µmol/L demonstrated a substantial and statistically significant enhancement (p < 0.001) in cell attachment efficiency. However, it became evident that all tested concentrations of Simvastatin led to a marked reduction in the proliferation rate (p < 0.001) and a concurrent increase in cytotoxicity (p < 0.001). Furthermore, the analysis of cell cycle progression and apoptosis revealed a progressive and statistically significant increase with the passage of time (p < 0.001). In summary, the outcomes of this investigation underscore a prominent adverse effect of Simvastatin on normal human dental pulp cells. Specifically, this statin appears to detrimentally influence cell proliferation and overall cell viability through the induction of apoptosis, as indicated by the findings of this study.

Simvastatin, Human Dental Pulp Cells, Toxicity, Apoptosis

APA Style

Kanwal Maheshwari, Vijay Maheshwari, Laisheng Chou. (2023). Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Simvastatin on Human Dental Pulp Cells. International Journal of Materials Science and Applications, 12(5), 59-66.

ACS Style

Kanwal Maheshwari; Vijay Maheshwari; Laisheng Chou. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Simvastatin on Human Dental Pulp Cells. Int. J. Mater. Sci. Appl. 2023, 12(5), 59-66. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20231205.11

AMA Style

Kanwal Maheshwari, Vijay Maheshwari, Laisheng Chou. Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Simvastatin on Human Dental Pulp Cells. Int J Mater Sci Appl. 2023;12(5):59-66. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20231205.11

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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