Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2015, Page: 203-208
Modeling of Conventional Autoclave Curing of Unsaturated Polyester Based Composite Materials as Production Process Guide
Adefemi Adeodu, Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Christopher Anyaeche, Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Oluleke Oluwole, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria
Samuel Afolabi, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, Afe Babalola University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Received: Jun. 1, 2014;       Accepted: Jul. 1, 2014;       Published: May 26, 2015
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20150403.18      View  4131      Downloads  67
Abstract
Modeling of composite curing process is required prior to composite production as this would help in establishing correct production parameters thereby eliminating costly trial and error runs. Determining curing profile temperatures from experiment is a huge challenge which in itself is like re-inventing the wheel of trial and error, when mathematical models of physical, chemical and kinetic properties of the constituent materials could be used in modeling the cure situation to some degree of trust. This work has modeled two types of polymer based composite materials (Aluminum filled polyester and carbon-black filled polyester) representing polymer-metal and polymer-organic composites in order to predict the possible trends during conventional autoclave heating with regards to effect of heating rate on degree of cure of the composites. The numerical models were constructed by taking into account the heat transferred by conduction through the resin/filler mixture, as well as kinetic heat generated by cure reaction. The numerical solution of the mathematical models presented were discretized using forward finite differences of the Runge Kuta Method and finally solved using MATLAB® C programming language. It was observed that Aluminum filled polyester composite responded faster to heat input- induced curing and as such was able to cure faster than polyester –carbon black composite which had much slower cure –heat input response. This implies that in the production process of polymer-organic composites, faster heating rate was necessary to input heat into the process as there was no heat of reaction released during the cure process whereas, polymer-metal composites release heat of reaction contributing to the quick transfer of heat into the metal components causing the metal components to behave as points of adhesion to the polymer matrix thereby necessitating a slower heating rate.
Keywords
Modeling, Polymer- Matrix Composites, Autoclave Curing, MATLAB®
To cite this article
Adefemi Adeodu, Christopher Anyaeche, Oluleke Oluwole, Samuel Afolabi, Modeling of Conventional Autoclave Curing of Unsaturated Polyester Based Composite Materials as Production Process Guide, International Journal of Materials Science and Applications. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, pp. 203-208. doi: 10.11648/j.ijmsa.20150403.18
Reference
[1]
Dave R., Kardos J. L. and Dudukovic M. P., (1987). Journal of Polymer Composites. 8, 29.
[2]
Halpin J. C., Kardos J. L., and Dudukovic M. P., (1983). Pure & Appl. Chem. 55, 893-906.
[3]
Adnan. A, Abdul Razak Al Salem, Najat j. Salah and Hassen Sh. Majdi (2010). Tikrit Journal of Engineering Sciences., 12(2),118-138.
[4]
Kosar V and Z. Gomzi (2001)."Thermal Effects of Cure Reaction for Unsaturated Polyester in Cylindrical Moulds", Chem. Biochem. Eng., Q., 15, 3, 101-108.
[5]
Nixon J. A and Hutchinson J. M., (1985). Analysis of the Cure of Sheet Moulding Compound. Development of the Model. Plastic and Rubber Processing Application, 5: 349-357
[6]
Philip C.Sturman and Rexford N. Y., (1999). Induction heating of Polymer matrix composite fibre strands. SAMPE Journal, Vol. 26, No 4
[7]
Mallick, P. K., (1993). Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design. 2nd Ed. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.
[8]
Barone M. R., Caulk D. A., (1975). Int. J. Heat Mass Trans. 22. 1021
[9]
Lee W. I., Loos A. C., Springer G. S., (1982). Heat of Reaction, Degree of Cure and Viscosity of Hercules 3501-6 Resin. Journal of Composites Material. Vol 16: 510-520
[10]
Gutowski T. G., Morigaki T., and Cai Z., J. (1987). Compos. Mater. 21, 72.
[11]
Kwok Yeung Peter Wong, (2012). Measurement of Mechanical Electrical and Thermal Properties of Glass Powder Reinforced Epoxy Composites. A MSc dissertation. University of Southern Queensland. Australia.
[12]
Kenny J. M., Apicella A., and Nicolais L. A., (1989). Poly. Eng. Sci., 9, 973-983.
[13]
Kenny J. M., A. Maffezzoli and L. Nicolais, (1990) "A model for the thermal chemo-rheological behavior of thermoset processing (II) unsaturated polyester based composites", Composites Science and Technology, 38, 339-358,
[14]
Kenny J. M. and A. Trivisano, (1991). Polymer Engineering and Science. 31, 1426.
[15]
Barton J. M., (1985) "The application of differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to the study of epoxy resin curing reaction", Advance Polymer Science Vol. 72, Pp 111-154.
[16]
Gonzalez-Romero V. and N. Casillas., (1989). "Polymer Engineering and Science" Vol. 29, Pp5.
[17]
Lam W. K., H. P. Plaumann and T. Tran., (1990)."An Improved Kinetic Model for the Autocatalytic Curing of Styrene-Based Thermoset Resins.", Journal Applied Polymer, 41, 3043- 3057
[18]
Lee W. I and Springer G. S (1984). Journal of Composite Material.18, 387.
[19]
Kamal M. R. and S. Sourour, (1973). "Kinetics and Thermal Characterization of Thermoset Cure", Polymer Engineering and Science, 13(1), 59-64
[20]
Han C. D., Lee D. S., and Chin H. B., (1986). Journal of Polymer Engineering and Science.26, 393-404.
[21]
Bejan and Adrian (1990). Heat Transfer, John Wiley and Sons, New York
[22]
Kim and Cheol (1995). Journal of composites materials 29, 223-1253.
[23]
Mathews J. H., and K. D. Fink, (1999). Numerical Methods Using MATLAB. 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall.
[24]
Adeodu A. O., Anyaeche C. O., Oluwole O. O., (2014). Modeling of Microwave Curing of unsaturated Polyester Based Composite materials as Process guide. Journal of Advancement in Engineering and Technology. Vol 1/1.
[25]
Das S., Mukhopadhyay A. K., Datta S., and Basu D., (2008). An Overview of Prospects of Microwave Processing. Bull and Material Science. 32(1), 1-13.
[26]
Opalièki M., (1994). Curing Kinetics and Chemorheology of Thermoset Matrices for Composites, doctoral dissertation, Zagreb.
[27]
Vergnaud J. M., Bouzon J., (1992). Cure of Thermoseting Resins: Modelling and Experiments, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
[28]
Özisik M. N., (1994). Boundary Value Problems of Heat Conduction, Dover Publications Inc., New York.
Browse journals by subject